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Ask Ubuntu is a question and answer site for Ubuntu users and developers. It only takes a minute to sign up. Connect and share knowledge within a autodesk maya 2013 license was not obtained error 20 free location that is structured and to search. Assuming that one already has the required specs and a solid graphics card driver installed, how can it be done? First you need to download the actual linux rpm files from the autodesk You should obtain a personal edition license, a student license, or a commercial license.

Autodesk also includes the ,icense needed to connect to a network license. Note that when going through the student license process, you won’t be offered a Linux download. Simply prepare to download the Windows version, and you will be given and emailed a key that works with the linux version.

Basically consists of converting the. Try first running it as a super user sudo maya. You should be able to run it as a normal user afterwards. Ubuntu Community Ask! Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.

Stack Overflow autodesk maya 2013 license was not obtained error 20 free Http:// — Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge. Create a free Team Why Статья, adobe acrobat dc standard vs dc pro free знаете Learn more about Teams. Asked 8 years, 7 months ago. Modified 3 years, 3 months ago. Viewed 19k times. Installing Autodesk Maya on Ubuntu is possible, but can be a bit challenging.

Improve this question. Andy Chase Andy Chase 1 1 gold badge 4 4 silver badges 7 7 bronze badges. Add autodewk comment. Sorted by: Reset to default. Highest score default Date modified newest first Date created oldest first. Getting the Installer First you need детальнее на этой странице download the actual linux rpm files from the autodesk website.

Installing Basically consists of converting the. Running maya at the command prompt displays no output. Maya no gui, Maya hangs at startup, etc.

If you get an error about cshyou need to apt-get install csh first. Maya some 3D elements missing, Maya grey starup screen, Maya crashes when making a file, etc. Improve this answer. Community Bot 1. NB any [free] student licensees – Linux is only supported for commercial :- — Louis Maddox.

It failed. Any advice? If you google the second half of your error message there’s a few people with similar problems, for example: ubuntuforums. SalihKaragoz I replaced the link with another just now — Andy Chase.

Show 3 more comments. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Autodesk maya 2013 license was not obtained error 20 free aitodesk a guest Name. Email Required, but never wws. The Overflow Blog. Can you stop your open-source project from being used for evil? AWS will be ajtodesk Ask Ubuntu. End of Life Notice: Ubuntu Linked 1. Related 1. Hot Network Questions. Question feed. Accept all cookies Customize settings.


License Error: The License Manager is Not Functioning or is Improperly Installed (FLEXnet Error) – 2013年09月15日


Google uses various tax avoidance strategies. On the list of largest technology companies by revenue , it pays the lowest taxes to the countries of origin of its revenues. Such techniques lower its non-U. In , Google said it had overhauled its controversial global tax structure and consolidated all of its intellectual property holdings back to the US. In , Google ranked 5th in lobbying spending, up from th in In , the company ranked 2nd in campaign donations of technology and Internet sections.

The name “Google” originated from a misspelling of ” googol “, [] [] which refers to the number represented by a 1 followed by one-hundred zeros. Page and Brin write in their original paper on PageRank : [33] “We chose our systems name, Google, because it is a common spelling of googol, or 10 and fits well with our goal of building very large-scale search engines.

The original Google logo was designed by Sergey Brin. Subsequent Google Doodles were designed by an outside contractor, until Larry and Sergey asked then- intern Dennis Hwang to design a logo for Bastille Day in From that point onward, Doodles have been organized and created by a team of employees termed “Doodlers”.

Google has a tradition of creating April Fools’ Day jokes. Its first on April 1, , was Google MentalPlex which allegedly featured the use of mental power to search the web. Google’s services contain easter eggs , such as the Swedish Chef ‘s “Bork bork bork,” Pig Latin , “Hacker” or leetspeak , Elmer Fudd , Pirate , and Klingon as language selections for its search engine. On Fortune magazine’s list of the best companies to work for, Google ranked first in , and , [] [] [] and fourth in and As of September 30, , [update] Alphabet Inc.

Google’s employees are hired based on a hierarchical system. Employees are split into six hierarchies based on experience and can range “from entry-level data center workers at level one to managers and experienced engineers at level six.

In , articles in The New York Times [] and other sources began suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate, no evil philosophy. On January 25, , the formation of an international workers union of Google employees, Alpha Global, was announced. The formation of the union is in response to persistent allegations of mistreatment of Google employees and a toxic workplace culture.

Google’s headquarters in Mountain View , California is referred to as “the Googleplex “, a play on words on the number googolplex and the headquarters itself being a complex of buildings. Internationally, Google has over 78 offices in more than 50 countries. The office was designed and built specially for Google, and houses its largest advertising sales team. The sale is touted as one of the most expensive real estate transactions for a single building in the history of New York.

It also has product research and development operations in cities around the world, namely Sydney birthplace location of Google Maps [] and London part of Android development. Recognized as one of the biggest ever commercial property acquisitions at the time of the deal’s announcement in January, [] Google submitted plans for the new headquarter to the Camden Council in June The new campus, reported to be the company’s largest outside the United States, will accommodate 13, employees.

Google’s Global Offices sum a total of 85 Locations worldwide, [] with 32 offices in North America, 3 of them in Canada and 29 in United States Territory, California being the state with the most Google’s offices with 9 in total including the Googleplex.

Google built its own private submarine communications cables ; the first, named Curie, connects California with Chile and was completed on November 15, In October , the company announced plans to install thousands of solar panels to provide up to 1. Google disclosed in September that it “continuously uses enough electricity to power , homes”, almost million watts or about a quarter of the output of a nuclear power plant.

Total carbon emissions for were just under 1. Google said that 25 percent of its energy was supplied by renewable fuels in An average search uses only 0. The company announced the two locations will generate In July , Google signed an agreement with an Iowa wind farm to buy megawatts of power for 20 years.

The commitment will make Google “the world’s largest corporate buyer of renewable power, with commitments reaching 2. In November , Google bought megawatts of wind power. The wind energy comes from two power plants in South Dakota, one in Iowa and one in Oklahoma.

In September , Google announced it had retroactively offset all of its carbon emissions since the company’s foundation in It also said that all its final assembly manufacturing sites will achieve a UL Zero Waste to Landfill certification by by ensuring that the vast majority of waste from the manufacturing process is recycled instead of ending up in a landfill.

Google donates to politicians who deny climate change, including Jim Inhofe , and sponsors climate change denial political groups including the State Policy Network and the Competitive Enterprise Institute. In , Google formed the not-for-profit philanthropic Google. One of its first projects was to develop a viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that can attain miles per gallon.

Google hired Larry Brilliant as the program’s executive director in [] and Megan Smith has since [update] replaced him as director. In , Google announced its “project 10 ” which accepted ideas for how to help the community and then allowed Google users to vote on their favorites. Google has had criticism over issues such as aggressive tax avoidance , [] search neutrality , copyright , censorship of search results and content, [] and privacy.

Other criticisms are alleged misuse and manipulation of search results, its use of others’ intellectual property , concerns that its compilation of data may violate people’s privacy , and the energy consumption of its servers, as well as concerns over traditional business issues such as monopoly , restraint of trade , anti-competitive practices , and patent infringement.

Google formerly complied with Internet censorship policies of the People’s Republic of China , [] enforced by means of filters colloquially known as “The Great Firewall of China “, but no longer does so. As a result, all Google services except for Chinese Google Maps are blocked from access within mainland China without the aid of virtual private networks , proxy servers , or other similar technologies. In August , The Intercept reported that Google is developing for the People’s Republic of China a censored version of its search engine known as Dragonfly “that will blacklist websites and search terms about human rights, democracy, religion, and peaceful protest”.

Louis -based healthcare company Ascension. In a National Labor Relations Board ruling, court documents suggested that Google sponsored a secretive project — Project Vivian to counsel its employees and to discourage them from forming unions.

The abuse of dominant position has been referred to Google’s constraint applied to Android device manufacturers and network operators to ensure that traffic on Android devices goes to the Google search engine. The judgment claimed Google had failed to sufficiently inform users of its methods for collecting data to personalize advertising.

After U. Congressional hearings in July , [] and a report from the U. House of Representatives’ Antitrust Subcommittee released in early October [] the United States Department of Justice filed an antitrust lawsuit against Google on October 20, , asserting that it has illegally maintained its monopoly position in web search and search advertising.

In , three women sued Google, accusing the company of violating California’s Equal Pay Act by underpaying its female employees. As a part of the settlement, Google also agreed to hire a third party to analyze its hiring and compensation practices. Google has worked with the United States Department of Defense on drone software through the Project Maven that could be used to improve the accuracy of drone strikes.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American technology company. This article is about the company. For the search engine, see Google Search. For other uses, see Google disambiguation. Google’s headquarters, the Googleplex. Larry Page Sergey Brin.

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Retrieved October 24, G Suite by Google Cloud. The first game to be added with such localization was Sin and Punishment for the Nintendo While other previous Japan-only titles had been released through the Virtual Console prior to this, the first being Battle Lode Runner from the TurboGrafx , added on April 23, , this and all others were originally written in English and required no localization.

Despite the fact others fit the category, there are currently 25 titles listed under the “Import” genre with 1 removed: Sin and Punishment , Super Mario Bros. Furthermore, at least two import titles DoReMi Fantasy [12] and Puyo Puyo 2 [13] were released without any English translation, and thus only Japanese text is available in these games while Monster World IV was fully translated to English.

Though the Virtual Console titles primarily cover only the games that have been released in Europe, Nintendo UK has commented that there is a possibility that in the future, Nintendo will localize Japanese and North American games that have never been released in Europe such as Super Mario RPG , which was released on the European Virtual Console on August 22, , after being unreleased in that region for 12 years.

While the gameplay remains unchanged for all of the classic titles offered for the Virtual Console, Nintendo has stated that some games may be improved with sharper graphics or better frame rates. As with disc-based games, the Virtual Console service is region-locked—that is, different versions of games are provided to different regions, and game availability may vary from region to region.

Nintendo stated that the Wii Shop Channel would not be used exclusively for retro games, and WiiWare games have appeared in North America as of May 12, Satoru Iwata stated in a speech on March 23, , that Nintendo, Sega , and Hudson Soft were working in collaboration to bring a “best of” series of games to the Wii.

Additionally, Hudson mentioned that its lawyers were working on acquiring the licenses to games from now defunct companies. Within this press release, Nintendo stated that more than 4. On October 9, , Nintendo announced that 7. Games from several new past consoles were added during Master System on February 26, , for Japan’s Virtual Console; [35] Commodore 64 support was added on March 28, , for Europe’s Virtual Console.

The Wii Shop Channel has functionality to allow games to be updated. These updates are free of charge to those who have downloaded a previous version of the game. In later years, some games have been removed from the service due to their licenses expiring, namely R-Type and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles , among others. Since Nintendo retains the rights to these games, the reason for their removal remained unknown, however, they have since been released on the Wii U eShop and were also added back to the Wii Shop Channel around the same time as well.

Sonic the Hedgehog and its sequel Sonic the Hedgehog 2 were both removed in Japan in While these and other removed titles can no longer be found or purchased from the Shop Channel, they remain available to those who have purchased them prior to their removal. Such users may still re-download them on their Wii consoles and even transfer them to a Wii U system using the “system transfer” tool. Virtual Console games can be played using different controllers.

The original and the pro versions of Classic Controller sold separately from the console can be used for all Virtual Console games. The controllers from the GameCube can also be used for all games on the Virtual Console, except for some multiplayer TurboGrafx games that use the GameCube controller for the fifth player. As a result of this, the wireless GameCube controller the WaveBird has seen increased popularity.

All Virtual Console games have their buttons mapped to the respective buttons on the controllers, however, in certain circumstances, users can use X and Y instead of A and B, if the original controller does not have X and Y buttons for example the NES. Nintendo 64 titles that originally provided force feedback via the Nintendo 64 controller ‘s Rumble Pak peripheral, however, are not supported by the built-in “Rumble” feature of the GameCube controller. The button mapping has become the cause of problems and concerns, however.

The button mapping is rigid and is not customizable. Because of this, many games are difficult to play. Nintendo has acknowledged this issue but has not put any effort towards fixing it on the Wii. Currently, all Wii U Virtual Console games support customizable button mappings. With the release of Bomberman ’93 , it was revealed that TurboGrafx games can support full five-player games. Since a single Wii can only have four Wii Remotes and four GameCube controllers connected at the same time, a combination of the two are needed for five-player games.

The same issue is found in player Commodore 64 games as well. Because the Wii U doesn’t have GameCube controller ports, only up to four-player games can be played on the system. Games downloaded from the Virtual Console library can be stored in the Wii’s built-in MB flash memory. Wii system software versions 2. Wii Menu 4. If the console runs out of memory, the SD menu will offer to move other channels to the SD card.

Virtual Console games are locked to the Wii on which they were purchased—they cannot be transferred to another Wii via an SD card, although it is possible to purchase games in the Wii Shop Channel and send them as gifts to people on their Wii Friends list.

Game saving is functional and intact on the Virtual Console for all games which originally had a save feature on their cartridge. Saved games are saved to the Wii Internal Memory and function exactly as the original cartridge did. A game that in its original cartridge form did not have any form of save feature will not have any save game feature on the Virtual Console though depending on its original system it may have the suspend feature as described below.

Most first-party N64 games used internal cartridge memory for game save data and thus will save properly on the Virtual Console. A select few first-party and nearly all other N64 game cartridges utilized the extra memory capability of the N64 Controller Pak. An extreme example is that of Mario Kart 64 which uses internal cartridge memory for progress and save game data. Consequently, all progress is saved properly since it was saved to the cartridge itself but one of the features in Mario Kart 64 saving ghosts for racing at a later date will not work since that particular feature utilized the Controller Pak, and the option to copy data to the Controller Pak won’t function in those games.

Like other emulation software, the Wii Virtual Console enables the user to suspend play of a game at any time. To do this, users simply return to the Wii main menu from the game. Note that suspending play enables the player to pause the game indefinitely but does not function as a “save state” in that, once the game is resumed, the user will be able to pause play again overwriting the suspend point but will not be able to return to the previously suspended state.

The suspend feature will not be available if the user resets the Wii with the reset button on the front of the console during gameplay. Further, if the Wii loses power during gameplay, there is no further suspend state, nor will there be a way to restart from the previous suspend state.

There are some exceptions, however. Arcade games released by Bandai Namco feature an updated menu and when reset during gameplay the save state will be saved before the console is reset. The store updates irregularly on Tuesdays. There are 40 titles available. Depending on the game, they are playable in either Japanese or English. Super Mario World is the only game that can be bought in either language. Since Nintendo of Taiwan and Nintendo of Hong Kong never offered a Chinese version of the Wii console in Hong Kong or Taiwan, they have released Japanese Wii’s in that region and by hardware extensions, the Japanese Virtual Console is also available for customers in Taiwan and Hong Kong and like other regions are able to buy Japanese Nintendo Points cards at certain retailers.

There are also special features available while playing Virtual Console games, such as viewing classic Game Boy titles with the traditional green screen or viewing them in an emulated border. A separate, but related set of games are 3D Classics , which are remakes of classic titles that make use of the Nintendo 3DS’s stereoscopic 3D capabilities. In response to an August price drop on the Nintendo 3DS hardware, Nintendo announced plans to give early adopters of the system a number of Virtual Console releases as appreciation of their support.

On February 1, , Punch-Out!! R-Type and Alien Crush were later added a few months later in February, the following year. As of now, no new TG games have been added to the Virtual Console service. Taking advantage of its upgraded hardware on the New 3DS, the games support “Perfect Pixel mode”, which allows these games to be played at their original resolution and aspect ratio. However, unlike the Wii’s, the games can save a single “restore point” that can be used as much as the player wants to but is replaced and overwritten if the player makes another one.

The full launch includes six games with three being for the NES and three of them being for Game Boy. Unlike with the Wii, titles originally released on the arcades and non-Nintendo consoles with the exception of the TurboGrafx were not offered.

Users who own the Wii Virtual Console version of a game will be able to get the Wii U Virtual Console version of that game for a discounted price. It was previously going to be released in North America back in , but was cancelled due to the Super NES already on its way, causing Nintendo to move on.

The game had been fully translated in English. TurboGrafx support was added to the European Virtual Console, just two weeks later on June 28, The save feature for the Wii U Virtual console service is similar to the Wii’s. However, unlike the Wii’s, the games can save a single “restore point” that can be used as much as the player wants to, but is replaced and overwritten if the player makes another one.

The Nintendo Switch family of systems does not use the “Virtual Console” label for the digital distribution of its older games from past platforms. However, they are instead releasing Nintendo Entertainment System , Super Nintendo Entertainment System titles to subscribers of the Nintendo Switch Online service, while others are made available via the Switch’s eShop.

In October , Nintendo announced an expansion pack to the online service that adds Nintendo 64 and Sega Genesis titles. Unnamed Nintendo employees have reportedly speculated that licensing issues will be a predominant factor in determining whether a game is available for Virtual Console, [66] giving the examples of GoldenEye and Tetris as games that might be too expensive to license for the Virtual Console.

Tecmo has announced its plans to “aggressively” support Virtual Console by re-releasing classic games. Though Tecmo did not specify which titles it intended to release, the company is responsible for many retro classics, such as Ninja Gaiden , Rygar , and Tecmo Bowl.

Since then, Capcom and Konami , among others, have also released titles. It is unknown if the game will be released in North America and Europe. Interactive Entertainment when it filed for bankruptcy in Warner Bros. Nintendo has stated that the Virtual Console releases will be faithful to the original games, eliminating the possibility of graphical enhancements, customizable controls, or added online multiplayer features.

Some Nintendo 64 games offered optional features that required peripheral hardware, such as the Rumble Pak for force feedback and the Controller Pak for additional data storage. Because these peripherals are not emulated or simulated in the Wii Virtual Console, the games played on the Virtual Console as they would on the Nintendo 64 without the peripherals attached. Wave Race 64 still has the ability to save progress but like Cruis’n USA the copy ability that allowed data to be copied to the Controller Pak cannot be used.

Since this peripheral was never released outside Japan, the NES versions of these games did not support this save feature. Despite this, all three games have had the feature implemented in their Virtual Console releases for Wii and Wii U, allowing players to save course data to the system’s memory or an SD card; [73] however, these features are not present in the Virtual Console releases of Mach Rider and Wrecking Crew for Nintendo 3DS, although the 3D Classics release 3D Excitebike does retain this feature as it is not a Virtual Console release.

Deluxe Game Boy Color on the Nintendo 3DS cannot print photos from either game, since this required the Game Boy Printer peripheral to be attached throughout both games and any features that required use of the Game Boy Color Infrared port can’t be used since the 3DS uses different infrared technology from the Game Boy Color.

Some reviewers have reported that games play differently due to the different controllers. For example, Super Mario World is often cited as being more difficult to play due to the GameCube controller’s button mapping. This has been noted to provide a significantly different sensitivity when compared to the original N64 mapping.

Virtual Console releases of Game Boy and Game Boy Color games on the Nintendo 3DS give the player the option to play the games as they appeared on their original hardware. By holding a button combination while launching the game, the 3DS presents the game in its original resolution rather than upscaling it to fit the height of the screen, making it appear smaller but more crisp. Game Gear games can also be played in the original resolution by changing the screen settings on the touch screen menu.

Monochrome Game Boy games can be displayed in both “black and white” and “black and dark green” color palettes, switchable during gameplay. While virtually all Virtual Console games play identically to their original versions, some games have been altered cosmetically to address licensing and copyright issues. Tecmo Bowl NES originally included the names of real football players licensed from the NFL Players Association , but since the game’s release, Electronic Arts obtained exclusive rights to the license; consequently, the names were removed from the Virtual Console version, with only the players’ numbers being shown.

Other games have experienced minor graphical differences from their original versions as well; most of these changes as well as several others were done due to Nintendo being more cautious about epilepsy, since many of the games during that time employed high flickering of color patterns that engulfed the screen. F-Zero SNES eliminates the track dimming when the player runs over the edges of the track, and Nintendo 64 games render polygons at a higher resolution than in their original hardware though sprites and text appear blocky and pixelated by comparison.

While the gameplay is identical to the original, this release includes the save screen from the Famicom Disk System version, as well as an updated translation of the introduction screen. The Wii U Game Boy Advance games have the graphics similarly smoothed, but give the player the option to toggle this effect on or off.

One significant difference in gameplay occurred in Kid Icarus NES , which had its password system altered to disable certain special passwords that gave the main character special powers or large amounts of money.

This game is a modified version of the NES release of Donkey Kong to more closely resemble the arcade version, and was originally featured as a mini-game in Donkey Kong Similarly, Nintendo DS games made available on Virtual Console are identical to their original release, complete with Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection set-up screens; however, as the wireless features are not emulated, attempting to use online play or local wireless multiplayer features such as in Mario Kart DS will not function, especially as the original service had been terminated about eleven months prior to the Virtual Console debut.

This is done by a modified version of the game, where the levels are contained in the game’s data and unlocked automatically. In the original game, the levels were unlocked using cards purchasable at various stores, which had dot codes on them containing the level data, and when scanned by the Nintendo e-Reader peripheral, saved the level to the game’s save data for later usage without the card. While the original game could only fit 32 levels at any given time, the Virtual Console version has 38 levels in total, which includes every e-Reader card level ever released.

Certain games that were originally released only in Japan have been translated and released in other regions on Virtual Console. Sin and Punishment N64 , which had never been released in English but featured English voice acting, was released on the Virtual Console in North American and PAL regions; all menu commands and certain in-game text all originally written in Japanese were translated into English, but the game retains its Japanese title screen and dialogue subtitles.

Wired ‘ s Chris Kohler protested the disparity between the American and Japanese libraries, both in quantity and quality.

The pricing has also been criticized as too high, especially for the NES games, [87] given the prices of many of the games available as used and the near-zero costs of manufacture and distribution. With the launch of the Wii in territories using the PAL television system, it has become apparent that in most cases the games supplied for the Virtual Console run in 50 Hz mode and in their original unoptimized state.

Setting the Wii console to 60 Hz mode does not force the 50 Hz game into 60 Hz mode as is possible on emulators and modified PAL consoles. All currently released Nintendo 64 games are partially PAL optimized, resulting in full screen games although still running in 50 Hz and locked to the original slower gameplay speed. This optimization was not the case for the original cartridge versions of Super Mario 64 , Wave Race 64 or Mario Kart 64 , making the Virtual Console versions superior in that regard.

A select few games were already optimized in the original release to begin with, and are thus just as fast as their 60 Hz counterparts this time around the most obvious examples being Donkey Kong Country and Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy’s Kong Quest.

TurboGrafx games are the only Virtual Console games to actually run in 60 Hz on PAL Wii systems; this is because the game data was never changed for release in PAL territories, the original hardware itself performed the conversion to a 50 Hz signal.

During Nintendo’s “Hanabi Festival” campaign, certain titles that were never released in Europe were being added to the Wii Virtual Console. Some of these games, namely Japan-only titles such as Super Mario Bros. A small reminder is shown when previewing the game’s channel.

The Hanabi games can be played in both PAL60 i and p modes. The fast moving sprites in NES and SNES games generally create a significant amount of interlace artifacts on such displays that the p option resolves.

Initially, some PAL Virtual Console games would not display correctly on high-definition televisions when connected via the component lead. However, starting with an update on April 13, , certain newly added games, such as Punch-Out!!

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Line of downloadable video games for several Nintendo platforms. This article is about the Virtual Console component of Nintendo’s game download services. For the computer user-interface concept, see Virtual console. This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help clarify the article. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page.


Boris FX | Mocha® User Guide.[Maya-Python] mayapy playblast


You just close and save the Mocha view when done and the project is saved inside the effect. Visible Layers Button: This button launches the Visible Layers dialog so you can select the layers you want visible as mattes. You can use secondary clips in the host application to render tracked inserts into your shots. See the User Guide Chapter on the Insert Module for more details on manipulating and warping inserts. For node based compositors you can plug the insert image into the ‘Insert’ input on the the Mocha Pro effect node.

In Vegas you need to make the insert image the parent in compositing mode. See Using the Insert Layer clip in Vegas for this method. In HitFilm, you select the insert image from one of your other layers in the comp listed in the “Insert” dropdown. You can also adjust the Insert Blend Mode and the Insert Opacity from the plugin interface without needing to go back into Mocha:.

In cases where your input source has an alpha channel, you may wish to change the Alpha view inside the Mocha GUI. You can either turn Alpha off entirely by toggling off the button, or choose from one of the following options:. Auto alpha: Reads in alpha if it is not opaque or premultiplied. This is the default setting.

When rendering back out to the host, there are cases where you may also need to premultiply the alpha using the premultiply options in the plugin interface. If you are using the ‘Stereo’ option, make sure you are applying the effect to the Left eye footage and choose your right-eye source input. This includes:. To add Mocha, simply locate it in the Effects panel like any other effect and drag it onto your layer. Once your layer is hooked up to your Mocha Effect, the general workflow for the Mocha Plugin is as follows:.

If you are using Mocha Pro, choose the renders you wish to use from the “Module Renders” section and check “Render”. Once you have applied the Mocha effect, you can click on the ‘Launch Mocha UI’ button to launch the main interface. If you are using the Mocha Pro version of the plugin, controlling renders is exactly like the standard OFX rendering controls. This is because all Mocha VR features have been rolled into Mocha Pro and a Mocha VR plugin stub is kept to avoid breaking compatibility with your old projects.

When you want to start a new VR project, we highly recommend using the Mocha Pro plugin rather than the legacy Mocha VR plugin, as this compatibility feature may be removed in future versions. Mocha workflow is designed around a project structure. It is good practice to only work on one shot per project file to minimize layer management and to keep the work streamlined. When you start the application you are presented with an empty workspace.

No footage is loaded and most of the controls are consequently disabled. To begin working, you must open an existing project or start a new project. This will bring up a file browser, where you can select almost any industry standard file formats. Image sequences will show up as individual frames. You can select any one of the frames and the application will automatically sequence the frames as a clip when importing.

A project name will automatically be generated based on the filename of the imported footage, but you can change it by editing the Name field. This is created in the same folder your clip is imported from. The range of frames to import. We recommend to only work with the frames you need, rather than importing very large clips or multiple shots edited together. This is set to the starting frame number or timecode by default.

You can also define a fixed frame You can set a default for the fixed frame in Preferences. You also have the option to view as Timecode or Frame numbers.

If your clip has an embedded timecode offset and you switch to Timecode, the offset will be used in your project.

If you need to adjust this value later, you can open Project Settings from the file menu. Normally this is automatically detected, but you have options to adjust if necessary. Make sure you check the frame rate before you close the New Project dialog.

If you are using interlaced footage, set your field separation here to Upper or Lower. Make sure you check your fields match your footage before you close the New Project dialog. If you wish the clip to be cached into memory, check the Cache clip checkbox here.

Caching is recommended if you are working a computer that has fast local storage, but your shot is stored in a slow network location. More often than not, you can leave this setting off. If working with log color space, set soft clip value here. Default is zero making falloff linear, rather than curved.

Mocha Pro supports Equirectangular Footage. To set the project to be in mode, check the ‘ VR Footage’ checkbox after you import your clip. When you start a New Project you are also presented with the option of creating a multiview project in the Views tab.

If you check Multiview project you are then presented with the view names and their abbreviated names. The abbreviated name is used in the interface for the view buttons, but is also used as the suffix for renders.

You can also choose the hero view. By default this is the left. Defining a hero eye determines the tracking and roto order for working in the views. If you want to define separate streams of footage for the stereo views, you can add additional footage streams view the Add button below the initial clip chooser.

If you forget to set up Multiview when you start a new project, you can set it in the new Project Settings Dialog from the File menu. Once you are in Multiview mode, you will see a colored border around the viewer based on the current view you are in. This is to help artists to identify which view they are currently in without having to refer to the buttons.

You can switch between Views by pressing the corresponding L R buttons in the view controls, or using the default 1 and 2 keys on the keyboard. You can swap views or change the Split View mapping from the View Mapping subtab under the Clip module:. The Mocha Pro plugin has a slightly different project workflow to the stand alone Mocha applications. This action loads the footage from the host clip you applied the effect to. It automatically applies the correct frame rate and other clip settings, so there is no need for the standard new project dialog.

After you have done the usual work inside the Mocha Pro interface, you simply close and save the Mocha Pro GUI and then you can control the output from the effect editor interface. For setting up a new stereo project with the plugin, see Plugin Stereo Workflow. The plugin has a slightly different project workflow to the stand alone Mocha applications. If you will only be working on a section of the shot you can use the In and Out points to set the range on the timeline.

You can zoom the timeline to only show you the part between you In and Out points by clicking the Zoom Timeline button. Frame offsets are important to get right in Mocha so that they export correctly to your target program. Project Frame Offset: This frame offset sets the starting frame for keys in your timeline. For example if you have imported a sequence of frames and you need the index of frames to start at , you can change this under the Project Settings in the file menu.

Clip Frame Offset: This frame offset is to offset the actual clip frames to slide the starting point of the clip back and forth. You can adjust clip frame offset under the Display tab in the Clip module.

For the vast majority of cases the Project Frame Offset is the value you want to adjust for working with data. The frame offset is usually already set correctly at the New Project dialog stage, but there may be cases where offsets change, such as adding new clip frames. Working with very long files can be time consuming for the artist and can slow down the tracking as it searches for more frames.

Try to only use what you need, and work on individual shots, rather than multiple shots in one piece of footage. Make sure these values match the settings in your compositor or editor, otherwise tracking and shape data will not match when you export it. If you are unsure which field your interlaced footage is in, import it and check.

If you quickly start your project with a guessed field order, you can check to make sure it is correct by using the right arrow key to step through the footage. Interlaced footage is painful to work with. For your own sanity, try not to use it unless you have to! If you are working on a large roto project you will sometimes need to have more than one person working on the same shot.

When it comes time to export out mattes or do final tweaks you can use the Merge Project option to combine any files that have been used on the same piece of footage. Simply select the Merge Project option from the File menu, and select a project you wish to merge. You can only merge projects that are the same dimensions, aspect ratio and frame length as the shot you are merging into. Open or create a project with matching footage and same dimensions as the Silhouette file.

This is important. Your Silhouette project file will need to match the frame rate, dimensions and length of the Mocha project to correctly import. Choose a Silhouette sfx project file. If you are in OS X, you may need to navigate inside the sfx package to find the actual project file. The Silhouette project will then convert any Bezier and X-splines to native Mocha splines and appear in the project.

If there are any B-Spline layers in the project, these will not be imported as they are currently not supported. The key to getting the most out of the Planar Tracker is to learn to find planes of movement in your shot which coincide with the object that you want to track or roto.

Sometimes it will be obvious – other times you may have to break your object into different planes of movement. For instance if you were tracking a tabletop, you would want to draw the spline to avoid the flower arrangement in the center of the table — it is not on the same plane and will make your track less accurate. To select a plane you simply draw a spline around it.

In general X-Splines work better for tracking, especially with perspective motion. We recommend using these splines where possible. The GPU option allows you to select any supported graphics card on your system to take on the brunt of the tracking process.

The resulting speed improvement is especially noticeable on high resolution footage or when tracking large areas. One of the most important concepts to understand with the Mocha planar tracking system is that the spline movement is not the tracking data. By default, any spline you draw is linked to the tracking data of the layer it is currently in.

In hierarchical terms, the spline is the child of the track, even if there is no tracking data. When you begin to track a layer, the area of detail contained within the spline s you have drawn will be searched for in the next frame.

If the planar tracker finds the same area in a following frame, it will tell the tracker to move to that point. Because the spline is linked to the track by default, it will also move along with it and the search begins again for the next frame.

Scrub the timeline and you will see that the grid and surface move with the spline. Now select all the points of your spline and move it around the viewer. This is because the spline is linked to the track, but the track is not linked to the spline. The spline is merely a search area to tell the track where to go next. It is a common misconception that moving the spline while tracking is affecting the movement of the tracking data. It is not. Moving the spline is only telling the tracker to look in a different place and will not directly affect the motion of the tracking.

This makes the tracker very powerful, as you can move and manipulate your spline area around while tracking to avoid problem areas or add more detail for the search. With the Planar Tracker you simply draw a spline around something, as shown with the screen below.

Select one of the spline tools to create a shape around the outside edge of the area you wish to track. When drawing splines it is best to keep the shape not tight on the edge, but actually give a little space to allow for the high contrast edges to show through, as these provide good tracking data. If you are using the X-Spline tool you can adjust the handles at each point by pulling them out to create a straight cornered edge, or pull them in to make them more curved.

Right clicking a handle will adjust all the handles in the spline at once. In some cases there are parts of an image that can interfere with the effectiveness of the Planar Tracker. To handle this, you can create an exclusion zone in the area you are tracking.

For instance, in the phone example we are using, there are frames where there are strong reflections on the screen. These reflections can make the track jump. So we need to isolate that area so the tracker ignores it. Select the add shape tool to add an additional shape to the current layer, which selects the area you want the tracker to ignore.

Draw this second shape inside the original shape. Note that both splines have the same color, which is an indication that they belong to the same layer. Also you will notice in the Layer Controls panel that you only have a single layer. You can also add as many entirely new layers on top of your tracking layer to mask out the layers below.

This is quite common when moving people, limbs, cars, badgers etc. In the Essentials layout , tracking Motion parameters are listed in the Essentials Panel:.

In the Classic layout , detailed tracking parameters can be accessed by selecting the Track tab. On the left hand side of the Track tab, you will see two sections: Motion and Search Area.

Understanding the parameters section of the Track parameters is vitally important for obtaining good tracks. Here we provide a breakdown of each parameter and how to use it effectively.

When tracking, Mocha looks at contrast for detail. The input channel determines where to look for that contrast. By default, Luminance does a good job. If you have low-luminance footage or you are not getting a good track, try one of the color channels or Auto Channel. By default, the minimum percentage of pixels used is dynamic. When you draw a shape, Mocha tries to determine the optimal amount of pixels to look for in order to speed up tracking.

If you draw a very large shape, the percentage will be low. If you draw a small shape, the percentage will be high. In many cases, the cause of a drifting or slipping track is a low percentage of pixels.

Keep in mind however that a larger percentage of pixels can mean a slower track. This value blurs the input clip before it is tracked.

This can be useful when there is a lot of severe noise in the clip. It is left at zero by default. Mesh Mocha Pro Only : Movement within the overall plane, such as distortion, warp etc. See PowerMesh and Mesh Tracking in the next chapter for more information on this tracking method. The main difference between shear and perspective is the relative motion.

Shear is defined as the object warping in only two corners, whereas perspective is most often needed where the object is rotating away from the viewer significantly in space. As an example, if someone is walking towards you, their torso would be showing shear as it rotates slightly back and forth from your point of view. The front of a truck turning a corner in front of you would be showing significant perspective change.

Large Motion: This is the default. It searches for motion and optimizes the track as it goes. Small Motion is also applied when you choose Large Motion. Small Motion: This only optimizes. You would use Small Motion if there were very subtle changes in the movement of the object you are tracking. Manual Tracking: This is only necessary to use when the object you are tracking is completely obscured or becomes untrackable.

Usually used when you need to make some adjustments to complete the rest of the automated tracking successfully. Existing Planar Data: This is only used when you want to add Mesh tracking to an existing planar track.

This is set to Auto by default. Angle: If you have a fast rotating object, like a wheel, you can set an angle of rotation to help the tracker to lock onto the detail correctly. Zoom: If you have a fast zoom, you can add a percentage value here to help the tracker. Again, the tracker will still handle a small amount of zoom with this set to zero. Track the plane selected by pressing the Track Forwards button on the right- hand side of the transport controls section.

You may keyframe the spline shape so that it tracks only the planar region of a shape by adjusting the shape and hitting Add Key in the keyframe controls menu. Keep in mind that no initial keyframe is set until you first hit Add Key or move a point with Auto-Key turned on. The spline should be tracked in addition to the clip being cached to RAM.

You can play it back and get an idea as to how the track went. F eel free to change the playback mode in the transport controls to loop or ping-pong your track. Turning on Stabilize will lock the tracked item in place, moving the image to compensate. In the track module, stabilize view is a preview mode to check your track.

Actual stabilization output is handled by the Stabilize Module, explained in the Stabilize Overview chapter. You can check the accuracy of your planar track by turning on the Surface the dark blue rectangle and Grid overlay in the Essentials panel or the toolbar:. If you play the clip, you should see the surface or grid line up perfectly with the plane you tracked.

When you turn on the surface you will see the blue box that represents the 4 points of the corner-pin. Right now you will see that it is not lined up with the screen. As described above, by selecting each corner one at a time you can adjust the surface area to cover the area of the screen, or you can use the middle points to scale and the outer corners to rotate.

You can change the density of the grid by adjusting the X and Y grid values in View Viewer Preferences:. The Trace feature allows you to see the position of the planar corners over time. Skip allows you to work with only every nth frame, useful on particularly long roto shots where the movement is predictable.

To monitor what the tracker “sees” as a tracking area, select the Track Matte button in the view control. There may be instances where you have already created mattes for one or more objects in the shot, for example using a keyer or another roto tool that would help you isolate areas to track. You can import such mattes by creating a new layer and then using the Matte Clip setting under Layer Properties to assign it to the layer.

When starting a new project, go through your footage a few times to see what your best options are for tracking. You will save yourself a lot of time by making note of obstructions and possible problem areas in advance.

When tracking surfaces you will usually get a much better track if you include the edges and not just the interior of an object. This is because Mocha can define the difference between the background and the foreground and lock on better.

For example, if you are tracking a greenscreen, it is better to draw your shape around the entire screen rather than just the internal tracking markers.

In some cases this means you can avoid tracking markers altogether and save time on cleanup later. The processing can be slower, but you will usually get a much more solid track.

Remember you are not limited to one shape in a layer. Use a combination of shapes to add further areas or cut holes in existing areas to maximize your search. If necessary, make an additional layer to track and mask out foreground obstructions before tracking the object you need.

This way you can stop your track early to fix any issues and spend less time trying to find them later. In order for Mocha to keep the best possible track, it is usually best to scrub through the timeline and find the largest and clearest area to begin tracking from, draw your shape there, then use backwards and forward tracking from that point.

For example, if you have a shot of sign coming toward you down a freeway, it is usually better to start at the end of the clip where the sign is largest, draw your shape and track backwards, rather than start from the beginning of the clip. We have a Planar Tracker which specifically tracks planes of motion, but this is not limited to tables, walls and other flat objects. Distant background is considered flat by the camera where there is no parallax. Faces can be tracked very successfully around the eyes and bridge of the nose.

Rocky ground, rumpled cushions, clumps of bushes, human torsos and curved car bodies are all good candidates. The key is low parallax or no obvious moving depth. When in doubt, try quickly tracking an area to see if it will work, as you can quite often trick the planar tracker into thinking something is planar.

Mocha is a very flexible tracker and will save a lot of time, but you will eventually run into a piece of footage that just will not track. Large or continuous obstructions, extreme blur, low contrast details and sudden flashes can all cause drift or untrackable situations. You can often get a lot more done fixing shots by hand or using AdjustTrack in Mocha rather than trying to tweak your shapes and parameters over and over again to get everything done automatically.

PowerMesh is designed to help track non-planar surfaces. This is for both rigid and non-rigid surfaces that would otherwise be impossible to track with a regular planar tracker. Rather than taking an optical flow approach which can be slow to render and produce cumbersome files , we use a subsurface planar approach which is much faster to generate and track. Draw a layer around the area you want to track. Automatic: This determines the best mesh to use based on image information contained in the layer.

Uniform: Generates a uniform square mesh insead of building based on the existing image. This means that the smaller the Mesh Size, the more potential mesh faces you will have.

The larger the Mesh Size, the larger the faces and the less faces you will have. This option makes sure the PowerMesh is generated to the boundaries of your layer spline, rather than just over the most interesting detail within it. Adaptive Contrast boosts details in the underlying image to help the Automatic mesh generate the most useful vertices.

Use with care! The Mesh tracker first uses the standard planar tracking per frame and then applies the sub-planar track with the mesh.

Any mesh faces that fall outside of the spline or the image boundary are ignored. Those mesh faces become rigid and try to follow along with the existing mesh. Turning this on tells Mocha to guess the amount of smoothness to apply to the Mesh track.

A high smoothness is like applying starch to your Mesh. It will follow the planar track more rigidly and not distort as much. A low smoothness will follow the subsurface movement more directly and distort the mesh more. As a general guideline, we recommend setting a lower smoothness for very warped or wobbly movement and a higher smoothness for more rigid objects that still have some distortion. Faces: This varies, but a smoothness of 50 is about the right amount to balance facial muscles vs general face planes.

This option deforms the spline shape to match the movement of the Mesh while tracking. As an added bonus, this also means it greatly reduces the keyframes needed to rotoscope an organic object. In the new layer, go to Layer properties and choose “Link to track” and select your tracked layer. You can also do this for the same layer you are on without creating a new layer. Any planar tracked layer can have the Mesh applied later and then simply be retracked using “Existing Planar Data”.

Selecting this turns on subselection in your mesh and you can move or delete vertices either before or after you have tracked the mesh. After Tracking, You can animate the tracked mesh manually to fix points or make your preferred adjustments.

Animated meshes are keyframed for the whole set of vertices, rather than individual points. This makes it easier to keyframe states over time, similar to the spline default animation mode. This tool appears when in Edit Mesh mode. When Add Vertex is on, click any Mesh edge to add a new vertex. A new edge will appear joining the created vertex and the vertex opposite. Use this section to create nulls from selected layers.

See Creating PowerMesh Nulls for more details. Alembic tracking data as a mesh: The exports from the “Tracking Data” export options. Alembic is supported across many hosts. The data format includes the PowerMesh and a camera that fits to the source footage. See Exporting to Alembic for more details. Of particular note is the introduction of PyIlmBase.

This module forms a comprehensive set of python bindings to the IlmBase module. In addition, contained in this release is a number of additions to Imath as well as a minor tweak to Imath::Frustrum for better support for Windows platforms as well as other minor fixes, including correction for soname version of IlmImf. Development of OpenEXR v2 has been undertaken in a collaborative environment cf.

Pixels can now store a variable length list of samples. The main rationale behind deep-images is to have multiple values at different depths for each pixel. OpenEXR v2 supports both hard surface and volumetric representation requirements for deep compositing workflows. With OpenEXR v2, files can now contain a number of separate, but related, images in one file.

Access to any part is independent of the others; in particular, no access of data need take place for unrequested parts. In addition, OpenEXR v2 also contains platform independent mechanisms for handling co-existing library version conflicts in the same process space. Currently implemented in IlmImf. Finally, a reminder that this is a Beta release and potentially incompatible changes may be introduced in future releases prior to the v2.

OpenEXR v2Beta. We’re looking forward to taking advantage of the collaborative features presented by git and github. Please see the developer Wiki pages for more information regarding participation. OpenEXR 1. CTL 1. Here’s a summary of what has changed since the last release: OpenEXR 1.

Added B44A compression. This is a variation of B44, but with a better compression ratio for images with large uniform areas, such as in an alpha channel. Bug fixes. Added new “ctlversion” statement to the language. IlmBase 1. January 22, – CTL has been released. Color management requires translating images between different representations or color spaces. CTL allows users to describe color transforms in a concise and unambiguous way by expressing them as programs.

In order to apply a given transform to an image, a color management system instructs a CTL interpreter to load and run the CTL program that describes the transform.

A Technical Achievement Award goes to Florian Kainz for the design and engineering of OpenEXR, a software package implementing bit, floating-point, high dynamic range image files.

Widely adopted, OpenEXR is engineered to meet the requirements of the visual effects industry by providing for lossless and lossy compression of tiered and tiled images. Congratulations to all for making OpenEXR such a success!!!

We have tested the code in this version internally at ILM, but we would like to get feedback from others before we release a production version. The new version includes several significant changes: OpenEXR supports a new image compression method, called B It has a fixed compression rate of 2. Bcompressed images can be uncompressed fast enough to support real-time playback of image sequences. The new playexr program plays back moving image sequences. Playexr is multi-threaded and utilizes the threading capabilities of the IlmImf library that were introduced in OpenEXR 1.

The program plays back Bcompressed images with fairly high-resolution in real time on commodity hardware. The playexr program and a new version of the existing exrdisplay image viewer both support color rendering via color transforms written in the new Color Transformation Language or CTL. CTL support in playexr and exrdisplay is optional; the programs can be built and will run without CTL. It briefly explains real-time playback and color rendering, and includes recommendations for testing if other image viewing software displays OpenEXR images correctly.

This release includes several new images that are useful for testing OpenEXR applications. The images are organized by subdirectory according to their image type or purpose. This is the next major production-ready release of OpenEXR and offers full compatibility with our last production release, which was 1. This version obsoletes versions 1. If you have been using 1. This is a test release. We’ve been testing the threaded code internally at ILM for a few months, and we have not encountered any bugs, but we’d like to get some feedback from others before we release the production version.

Here’s a summary of the changes since version 1. Support for Intel-based OS X systems. Support for Visual Studio Updated documentation. Bug fixes related to handling of incomplete and damaged files. Numerous bug fixes and cleanups to the autoconf-based build system. Removed support for the following configurations that were previously supported.

This is a relatively minor update to the project, with the following changes:. See the documentation section. This is a fairly minor release, mostly just a few tweaks, a few bug fixes, and some new documentation. Here are the most important changes:. This is the first official, production-ready release since OpenEXR 1. If you have been using the development 1. We believe that OpenEXR 1.

We have been using it in production at ILM for several months now with no problems. When you perform an adjust track and you begin to move a newly created reference point, you will notice the dashed lines which connect all of the reference points. These lines change in color to represent the quality of positioning of any given reference point.

For best results keep reference points away from one another. When adjusting the track try to always get at least yellow but shoot for green for a more solid adjust track. Often there are times where your reference points are either obscured or exit frame. In AdjustTrack you have the ability to create multiple reference points per surface corner that can be positioned in alternate locations to handle these situations.

Simply click the New Ref button to create a new reference point for the selected corner. You cannot keyframe the Surface — only the Reference Points. The original track and any refinements you make in AdjustTrack cause the Surface to move however. Every so often a shot will come along that is easier to track backwards than forwards. This is fairly simple when running the tracker backwards, but introduces some rather obtuse concepts when keyframing is involved.

For example, if you decide to create a new backwards reference point at frame 20, a new master reference will be created at frame Others who do a lot of tracking and find themselves working backwards often may find the backwards-thinking New Ref button helpful.

Every Reference Point has one frame in which its initial placement is determined without causing any adjustment to the track. This is called the Master Reference Point; if you step forward or backward in time you will notice the red X change to a red dot. The red X indicates that this particular frame is the starting point for calculating adjustments.

Step forward a frame and move the same point – this time the surface will move because you are now adjusting the track. By default, the frame in which you create a Reference Point is its Master Reference frame.

This Master Reference can occur on a different frame for each reference point. The next button simply cycles through the active reference points for that frame. More fine-grained control of reference points can be obtained through the Nudge control panel, described below. Deleting Reference Points is done by selecting the point you wish to remove and hitting the delete key. If there are multiple Reference points on a particular corner, the preceding Reference Point will be extended through your time line until a new Reference point is encountered.

The Nudge section allows you to move Reference points in 0. You can easily select any active Reference Point by selecting one of the corner buttons in the Nudge section. If you hit the Auto button, a tracker will attempt to line up the selected Reference Point based on its position in the Master Reference frame. You can quickly select any corner by using the Corner selector buttons in the Nudge control panel. In the image below, the user is selecting the upper right corner in preparation for nudging operations.

Deselecting the Inactive Traces button will cause the display to hide the traces of the inactive Reference Points.

This is helpful if you have a corner with numerous Reference Points offsetting it. When you see a drift, carefully cycle through the timeline and look for where the motion starts to change direction. A frame before this, adjust your drift, then go halfway between your master frame and the adjusted frame to check for any further drift.

If you keep working by checking halfway between each keyframe you set, you will reduce the amount of keyframes required. If you end up with adjustment keyframes on a large amount of frames it may be better retry the track. AdjustTrack is aimed to help reduce small anomalies and fix drift when a tracked corner has become obscured.

If you are fixing every second keyframe it means you have more than a simple drift. Good rotoscoping artists often think like animators, reverse engineering the movements, the easing in and outs, the holds and overshoots of objects, and set their keyframes accordingly.

In general, the fewer the keyframes, the better your mattes will look. Too many keyframes will cause the edges to ‘chatter’ and move unnaturally. Too few keyframes will cause the shapes to drift and lose definition. Finding the right number and placement of keyframes often comes with experience but there are a few things to keep in mind when rotoscoping.

There is no such thing as a perfect matte. Rotoscoping is an art form that takes into account the background image, the movement of the object, and the new elements to be composited in the background. Try to start your shape at its most complex point in time, where it will need the most control points.

Break a complex shape into multiple simple shapes. If you are rotoscoping a humanoid form and an arm becomes visible, consider rotoscoping the arm as its own element, rather than adding extra points on the body that will serve no purpose when the arm is obscured. Imagine you are the animator who created the shot. What would your dope sheet look like?

No matter the medium, whether CG, live action or otherwise, most movements are rarely linear. They normally move in arcs; they normally accelerate in and out of stopped positions. Try and understand the mechanics behind how things are moving in your shot. This will help you to minimize keyframes. Watch and study the shot before you start working. Where are the changes in directions? These will normally have keyframes. Where are the starts and stops? Are there camera moves that can be stabilized to make your work easier?

Beginning roto artists often make the mistake of trying to fix a flawed approach by adding more and more keyframes. Experienced roto artists learn to quickly identify an inferior approach and are unashamed to trash their work and start over, often many, many times. It is very difficult to get a good matte without a conscious effort to keep the keyframes to a minimum. While you can refine a shape you have tracked to do your rotoscoping, the recommended way is to do a rough shape to track something and then link your roto to that track.

This reduces the amount of work required when you are dealing with complex shapes, as you will not have to track and refine each shape as you go. Another reason is reducing the amount of data needed in your project file. It also helps to remember that your spline shape is linked to your tracking data and not the other way around. First of all you want to reduce as much manual work as possible by tracking.

In the example below, the front and side plane of the car is being tracked For a more detailed coverage of tracking, see the Tracking Basics documentation. This means the tracked shape will not be confused with any roto shapes you are making.

Once you have a track for a layer we recommend that you add a new layer to use for the actual roto spline, rather than refining the spline you used for the actual track as you might need to do more tracking with it later. You will see that a new layer is automatically created. Rename the new layer and link it to the movement of your already tracked layer by selecting it from the ‘Link to Track’ dropdown in the layer properties panel.

Now you have linked the rotoscoping layer to a track, you need to go over the timeline and make sure the roto is correctly animated. Often you will need to tweak your shape for it to fit correctly, adding new keyframes. Autokey is on by default, so you just need to move along the timeline and adjust your points where necessary keyframes turn up in the timeline as green dots. The tracking data will help for the majority of the motion.

You can also add additional shapes to the same layer using one of the “Add Spline to Layer” tools. This is useful for when you need to do minor adjustments across many points separately. Edges can be feathered either by dragging out feathers point by point using the edge pointer tools in the toolbar or by using the parameters in the Edge Properties panel. A feathered edge will occur between the inner and outer spline points.

For example, if you deselect all points by clicking anywhere on the canvas you can then use the Set button to apply the default 3 pixel edge width. Because no points are selected the value is applied to all points on the current layer.

You can then tweak the position of all spline points to ensure that the inner red spline is inside the edge and the outer blue spline is outside the edge. In many instances one track will not be enough. You may need to track more than one plane to drive different sets of roto. In the car example, we have to track the front and the side to get an accurate track for each planar region to assist the roto effectively.

In the case of organic shapes, like people, you will have to break your tracks down to handle the different movement between the torso and the arms etc. Use this tool with care, as it is not setting any keyframes per se, it is offsetting any and all keyframe data on the points you move while it is on. Use with care. If you wish to make adjustments to a particular range, set the In and Out points to that range.

You can translate, rotate and scale selected points as a group by using the corresponding tools listed in the toolbar. You can turn on and off individual points in a spline. When they are off, you can still see the points, they can still be animated, but they are not contributing mathematically to the spline.

This allows you to have a complex spline only when you need it, rather than having to deal with superfluous points in parts of the shot when they are not needed.

You will see the curve change shapes, but the points will remain. You can use the movement of the individual spline points to determine motion blur. You can control the amount of blur by changing the motion blur value in the Edge Properties panel.

Angle simulates how long the shutter is open for if we were viewing through a real camera, so the range is between:. The reason we refer to angle as opposed to “amount” is that camera shutters used to open with a rotary action, so a smaller angle would let in less light, and thus reduce motion blur.

Because Phase is based on the shutter angle you can adjust between the range and i. The steps of motion blur you want to render. The lower the quality, the faster the render speed.

The default is 0. Although not necessary in this example, note that you can change how mattes are blended in the Layer Properties panel. In the View Controls, several options are offered for viewing your mattes. The Matte drop down is has options to view all mattes, just the mattes you have selected or no mattes.

You may wish to rotoscope against a particular color. When you have your Mattes turned on, you may choose for the matte to be filled with a color instead of cutting out the object, using Colorize. You can adjust the opacity of the color fill by changing the blend value to the right of the Colorize button. The color used by Colorize is derived from the Selected and Unselected properties of the Overlay Colors panel, which can be changed per layer.

If you want to get a better view of your roto, you can get a better view by turning off some overlays. This allows you to view the actual rendered mattes, which can be especially useful when tweaking motion blur. The motion blur you normally see in your canvas is an OpenGL preview and can differ slightly from the actual render.

Because you can choose specific layers for export when you render, a render pass is created for each layer. If you want to draw open splines, you can simply hold shift when you right-click to finish the spline. This will open the shape up. You can open an existing shape using the Open Spline shortcut key by default this is ‘o’.

You can close an existing shape using the Close Spline shortcut key by default this is ‘c’. Naming layers is very important to save yourself time later, especially if you are doing a heavy rotoscoping job.

Get into the habit of labeling each layer with specific names. If you are working on a tight roto it can sometimes be easier to turn the spline off and just see the matte with the control points. To do this:. If your other view options are at default settings you should now see the matte in the viewer with only the tangents and control points visible.

The Magnetic Tool draws a pixel line that snaps to the nearest edge to where the cursor lies, tracing the shortest path from any previous click. Similarly, if you go off the edge of the frame, the magnetic tool will also switch to Freehand mode, so you can freely continue the shape. One you have completed a drawn line, you can either click back on the original point, or right-click.

X-Splines generated by the Magnetic and Freehand tools have a fairly high point count to match the subtle changes in the line. Finish drawing the line and right-click. This will automatically switch your cursor to the selection tool. You can snap the control points of any spline to edges of an object by using the Edge Snapping tool. Keep in mind this will naturally try to find the most visible edge, so in some cases snap may not find the edge you want.

In these cases it may need to be adjusted manually. Paint strokes that cross over an existing layer spline will intersect with that spline, or subtract from it if you are using the alt modifier key. Once done, you can turn off Quick Mask if it is on or just release the mouse button and a spline will be generated.

For finer control, the brush size will also change according to the set pressure sensitivity from a drawing tablet. Quick Mask stops the Area Brush tool from generating a spline as soon as you release the mouse or lift the tablet pen Once you have painted what you need, you can turn Quick Mask off by pressing the button and the spline will be generated. The number in the field is a pixel diameter. Any gap in a closed painted area that is smaller than the number in the field will be filled.

For example:. A large fill gap setting is useful for quickly circling an object with paint to make a filled spline. The tool is under the main Area Brush icon. Just press and hold the toolbar icon to select the brush from the list:. Once done, you can turn off Quick Mask if it is on or just release the mouse button and the resulting spline intersect with the existing layer splines:. If Quick Mask mode is off, this will erase the existing spline if you are using the Add Area Brush tool.

Just paint as normal holding down the modifier key:. Draw a new basic shape and track the object you want to rotoscope as outlined above in “Stereo Tracking”. Click the “Link to track” drop down in Layer Properties and choose the previously tracked layer. When you switch to the non-Hero view the rotoscoping will be offset by the tracking data. While this will not completely refine the result, it will save you a lot of time. Whenever you manipulate a control point in the Hero view it will offset that control point in the non-Hero view.

When you start to tweak the non-Hero view it will also generate new keyframes for that view only and will not affect the Hero view. You can see these keyframes represented in the timeline by split left and right keys. If you wish to directly modify the control point in both views when working in either view, you can turn on the “Apply Keyframe Changes to All Views” button at the very end of the timeline controls to the right.

If you need to offset your tracking or roto manually see below , you can use the Difference 3D view to help align the layer. Turn on Difference mode. Offset X and Y until the screen gets as close to blank middle grey as possible. You can optionally also adjust the other Stereo parameters.

The corner pin data records and exports the 4 point x, y information from either the adjusted track or the raw track. There are three different types of corner pin exports — two for recent After Effects versions and one for CS3 and older versions of After Effects.

The Power pin data is very much like corner pin, but the exported effect gives you more control over the results in After Effects. The transform data exports x and x positions as well as the scale and rotation for the whole surface.

If you click Save , this will display a file browser for saving the tracking data for use later. If you are saving to file you will need to open the text file you saved with the data, select the entire body of text and copy it.

Select the item on the timeline that is the insert object. Paste the data to the selected layer. If you are pasting transform data rather than corner pin data then you will need to delete the anchor point keyframes to see a result. We export both position and anchor point keyframes so that stabilization or tracking can be achieved. See below. If your insert is not the same size as the dimensions of the composition in After Effects, you will need to take a few further steps to make sure your corner pin data fits correctly.

The reason for this is that tracking data is basing itself on the relative size and aspect ratio of the footage, whereas After Effects treats the corner pin data relative to the size of the layer you are applying it to. To get around this, you can take the following steps to modify the insert layer in After Effects:.

Open the Precomp you just made and fit the layer to the composition dimensions Layer Transform Fit to Comp. Apply a manual corner pin to your insert layer in After Effects and place it in the desired position for any frame.

In Mocha, go to the same frame in the footage you applied the corner pin to in After Effects and select the track.

On this frame, turn on your surface and click “Align Surface” in the Layer Properties panel. This will apply the tracking data relative to the full dimensions of the footage instead. If you need to adjust the insert, just open the precomposed layer and tweak the manual corner pin you made.

Track your footage as normal, then turn on the Surface button and center the surface box on the area you wish to use as the stabilize center. Export the tracking data in the After Effects Transform format. Select the Invert checkbox option. Switch to After Effects, select the layer you wish to apply the stabilize data to and paste it to that layer.

Alternatively you can also use the After Effect Corner Pin export using Invert in the same way to get a correctly warped stabilized image. This section explains how to export tracking data in a format readable to Silhouette Tracker nodes, how to import the data into Silhouette and how to use it for match move tasks. Track an object in the usual way, and use AdjustTrack to correct for any drift if necessary. The exported tracking points will be the four corner points of the Surface, so you should position these appropriately.

You can then use a ‘Composite’ or ‘Math Composite’ to combine the corner pinned image over the top of the background image:. This example illustrates how to export Basic Motion data to Final Cut Pro or Final Cut Express, and use it to matchmove one clip to another, with translation, rotation and scale. The exported tracking points will be the four corner points of the Surface, so you should position these appropriately before export.

The distort option exports the 4 point x, y information from either the adjusted track or the raw track. The points exported are the four corners of the surface. The basic motion option exports x and y positions as well as the scale and rotation for the whole surface. The position exported is the center of the surface. Now click Save. This will display a file browser; you need to select a filename and directory for the files to be saved.

Now open the Final Cut project where you want to use the tracking data. If your original footage was a QuickTime file, then the new clip in Final Cut will point to this footage. If it was an image sequence, the clip will be connected to the first frame of the sequence, stretched to the duration of the whole clip.

In most situations, you want to apply the tracking data to a different clip in your timeline. To do this, you can copy and paste the data from the imported clip onto any other.

Drop your imported clip into the timeline, then select it and press Cmd-C to copy it to the clipboard. Now select the clip you want to apply the tracking data to and press Opt-V Paste Attributes. You will see a dialog asking you to choose which data to paste. Depending on the kind of data you exported, tick either ‘Basic Motion’ or ‘Distort’ and untick all the other boxes.

To use our tracking data for stabilization in Final Cut, follow the same procedure as for a basic motion export, but tick the Invert checkbox in the export dialog. You can also copy the stabilized data onto another clip using Copy and Paste Attributes as before.

Many issues of track misalignment can be corrected by choosing the right film type, frame rate and interlacing settings in our software. These controls are on the Clip page in the Film, Interlaced and Time tabs.

In Final Cut, check the sequence settings to confirm the correct PAR for the clip, then use the equivalent setting when tracking in our software. If you have already tracked with the wrong film type setting, you will need to re-track after changing it. This is usually caused by a frame rate mismatch. Check that the frame rate and interlacing settings match between final Cut and our software. This can be caused by a mismatch in the Final Cut Anamorphic setting.

If you are working with anamorphic footage, ensure that you have the ‘Anamorphic’ setting checked in your Final Cut sequence settings, and in the clip properties. You also need to use one of the anamorphic film types when tracking: any of the film types with ‘Anamorphic’ in the name should give correct results when importing the data into Final Cut. Next, choose ‘Motion basic transform.

Inside Motion, you can either choose to open the exported file as a new project or drag it into an existing project. You will see a Group containing the footage you tracked as well as a blue solid called “Surface”. If the surface layer does not automatically apply to the behavior, drag the surface layer onto the Match Move behavior. If you are just using transform, Match Move defaults to this option and you can set transform, scale and rotation. If you are using corner pin, select the ‘Four Corners’ option from the ‘Type’ drop down.

Check that the frame rate settings match between Motion and Mocha. This is normally due to the layer you are inserting not being the same frame size as your project media. You can fix this by either changing the insert to fit the dimensions, or scaling the insert inside motion to match the dimensions. If you are going to scale the layer to fit, you should do this step before you apply Match Move. This section explains how to export tracking data in a format readable by Apple Shake, how to import the data into Shake and how to use it for match move, corner pinning and stabilization tasks.

To load the tracking data in a file into an existing Shake Script follow these steps:. At this point you have successfully imported your tracking data from Mocha into Shake. But what exactly did you import? The MatchMoveLayer is used to apply the tracking data to a foreground element that you wish to matchmove to a background. It consists of two inputs, the background and the foreground.

The foreground element will be the element you wish to apply the match moving data to. The foreground is connected to the left side input of the node while the original tracked background element goes into the right hand side. The next node is the CornerPinLayer node. This node has a single input and works just like the left input of the MatchMoveNode. It takes your foreground element and applies the scaling, rotation, and translation data to it and prepares it for compositing into your next layer.

The last exported node is the Stabilizer Node. Just as the name implies, it takes all of the exported tracking data and uses that data to stabilize your input clip.

With this node, for example, you may apply this data to the background element you tracked to make for an easier composite. Now that you have successfully exported and imported your data into Shake you are ready to continue working on your project.

This section explains how to export tracking data in a format readable by Nuke, how to import the data into Nuke and how to use it for match move, corner pinning and stabilization tasks. In Nuke, append a tracker to the background clip, e.

On the import Ascii dialog, press the folder button next to the file name, browse to the file you exported, select it, click ‘Open’ and then click ‘OK’. If you choose Copy to Clipboard you can immediately switch over to Nuke and Paste the data.

Alternatively you can import your saved Nuke Script from the File menu. You can export a Corner Pin straight to the clipboard or to a. If you choose Copy to Clipboard you can immediately switch over to Nuke, select the node you wish to apply the corner pin to and Paste the data.

This section explains how to export tracking data in a format readable by Fusion, how to import the data into Fusion and how to use it for match move, corner pinning and stabilization tasks.

Now import the clip that you want composited onto the background and tie the output of the clip to the input of the tracker node. In the settings of the tracker node, select the ‘Operation’ tab and select either ‘Corner Positioning’ or ‘Match Move’ to composite the insert clip on top of the background.

Notice that you can switch ‘Position’, ‘Rotation’ and ‘Scaling’ on and off for different effects. This section explains how to export tracking data in a format readable by Autodesk Inferno, Flame, Flint, Smoke and Combustion. Select ‘Autodesk Flame Axis. Page 3. Tenants could see rent lowered for continued housing defects by Steve Burnham. Aproposal that would pe Ryan Veterinary Hospital for Small Exact Audio Copy v1. On You are such a special person.

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